Getting to know the types of building stones

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How many categories are stones divided into?

Building stones are one of the most basic and basic building materials, which are more stable and resistant than other materials. Based on the type of stone, it can be used in different parts of the building, such as flooring, roof, exterior of the building, and paving stones as concrete materials.

Most of the old and ancient monuments are built by natural stones and because of this, they remain very resistant and stable. Before producing concrete, stones are used for massive engineering projects, such as; Docks, bridges, harbor walls and beaches were used. Building stones are extracted in natural stone mines for the purpose of construction.

Construction stones, during processing and cutting, should have features such as; Have hardness, durability and resistance. Geologically, in nature, rocks are classified into three general categories, which are:

  • Igneous rocks: basalt, trap, andesite, rhyolite, diorite and granite
  • Sedimentary rocks: limestone, dolomite and sandstone
  • Metamorphic rocks: gneiss, quartzite and marble

The most important features of natural building stones

  • Petrographic analysis to determine composition and structure
  • Pressure resistance
  • Resistance to impact and possible damage
  • Slip resistance
  • Resistance to changes in humidity and heat
  • Cold resistance
  • Resistance to pollution

Types of building stone

The most common building stones used for various purposes in construction projects are as follows:

Granite stones

This type of stone is among igneous (volcanic) stones. This stone has inherent characteristics, such as; It has strength, resistance to pressure, durability and diverse color spectrum. Granite stones are used in high traffic places due to their high resistance. Granite stones are used in covering the internal and external walls of the building, bridge construction, stone columns, building foundation, paving and masonry. Also, due to the ability of this stone to be polished, it can be converted into smaller pieces and used as building flooring.

Basalt stone and trap

Basalt and trap stones are one of the types of igneous rocks. They are known as green, white or blue basalt stones. Very high endurance and strength are among the prominent features of these stones, to the extent that it makes the extraction and processing of these stones difficult.


Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed by the remains of living organisms in water. In this type of stones, there is a high percentage of calcium carbonate chemical compounds. Often, this type of rock is easily mined. Limestone is used for flooring, roofing and as the main material of cement.


Sandstone is one of the most widely used building stone materials. This stone is found in many geographical regions of the earth. It is very easy to use in construction. The degree of strength of sandstone depends on the minerals in it. Ease of use and variety of colors are among the features of this type of stone. This stone is used as a material for building roofs, paving stones, pillars and saddle works.


Marble is one of the metamorphic stones. This stone is obtained from natural mines all over the world. Marble stones have high cutting and polishing capabilities. This type of stone can be used in building interior and exterior facades.

Quartzite stone

Quartzite stone is among the metamorphic rocks that are formed by the transformation of sandstone under high pressure and temperature. Its inherent characteristics include strength, durability and high compressive strength. This stone is almost similar to granite stones. This stone is used as railway material, wall covering, flooring, interior and exterior of the building.


Travertine stones are part of the large family of sedimentary and limestone stones. This type of rock is formed climatically along or around hot and cold water springs. Travertine stones are fibrous in appearance (having open pores) and porous. These stones have a variety of colors including white, bronze, cream and brown. Travertine stones can be used as building materials.

The use of travertines as building materials has a long history. Historically, the Romans used the mines of this stone to build temples, aqueducts, monuments, baths and amphitheatres. Travertine is one of several natural stones that is considered an excellent option for internal and external paving stones. In addition, due to its very high porosity (resistant to cold), its use is also recommended for building interior and exterior facades.

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